Cell Membrane – The cell membrane is a protective layer around the cytoplasm of a cell that is involved in diffusion and osmosis by its permeability.
Nucleus – The nucleus is the organelle that directs all cell activities and is the ‘director’ of the cell.
Endoplasmic Reticulum – The ER’s function is to store and transport molecules such as proteins throughout the cell. There are two types of ER: rough ER and smooth ER (lacking ribosomes).
Riboosomes – Ribosomes are the part of the cell that synthesize proteins. Some are embedded into the rough ER.
Mitochondria – The mitochondria can be considered the power factory of a cell because it creates energy from ATP. Also, it recycles proteins, fats, and carbohydrates, and is where cellular respiration takes place.
Chloroplast – The chloroplast is an organelle that is only in plant cells. It contains chlorophyll, which uses sunlight to produce energy (photosynthesis).
Vacuole – The vacuole stores water, digests food, removes waste, and releases water from unicellular organisms.
Cytosol – Cytosol is the fluid in the cell which the organelles are in. It’s mostly made of water and other floating molecules. Not to be confused with cytoplasm, cytosol itself does not contain organelles.
Lysosome – The lysosome is a sac with digestive enzymes that break up food molecules. It transports undigested food through the cell membrane and out of the cell.
Peroxisome – Peroxisomes remove toxic substances from the body such as hydrogen peroxide.
Golgi Apparatus – The Golgi Apparatus stores and packages proteins.
Cytoskeleton – The cytoskeleton shapes a cell and gives it strong support and protection.